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4 декабря 2019 г.

Конаршаева Айнаш Атабаевна, старший преподаватель, теоретическая фонетика, Базовый основной иностранный язык, Каспийский государственный университет технологий и инжиниринга им.Ш.Есенова



UDK 376.33


Konarshayeva Ainash Atabayevna

           Caspian State University of Technologies & Engineering named after Sh. Yessenov

senior teacher

Annotation: In the given article the notion content of connected speech, monologue speech is analyzed,   a   monologic   form   of   speech   characteristics   are   revealed,   its   differences from dialogue speech, ways of studying connected speech of preschool age children, peculiarities     of monologic      utterances    of   children    with   a hearing    disorder    are examined.

Key   words:   connected   speech, monologic   utterance,   children   with   a   hearing disorder.

The   problem   of   acquiring   connected   speech   by   children   attracted   attention   of researchers     in the field of linguistics,   psycholinguistics,      and pedagogy     long   ago.  

At presence interest to this problem is still alive as far as connected speech is a reflection of   child’s   intelligence   development (L.S.   Vygotskiy, A.A.  Leontiev, A.R.  Luriya, N.N.   Poddyakov, L.S.   Rubinstein,     A.F. Sokhin    and    others)   plays    social   and communicative roles (A.G. Arushanova, T.I. Grizik, M.I. Lisina, O.E. Smitnova, and O.S. Ushakova),   is   connected   with   speech   and   language   development   of   children (T.A. Ladyzhenskaya, A.M. Leushina. M.R. Lvov, E.M. Strunina).

From the point of view of linguistics connected speech is regarded as a unit of time   possessing     considerable     length   and   which    canbe divided    into more/less complete (independent) parts [2].

In the limits of teaching a native language connected speech is regarded as an integral semantic and structural whole including connected between themselves and topically united complete segments (E.A. Barinova, T.A. Ladyzhenskaya, M.R. Lvov and    others).   A.V.Tekuchev      considers    connected     that   kind   of speech    which    isorganized   according   to   logics   and   grammar   laws,   is   a   unit,   a   system,   has   relative independence,         completeness       and   is   divided    into   more     or less   significant     parts connected between [13].

From     the   point   of   view    of methodology of preschool      age   children    speech development   semantic   detailed   utterance   (a   row   of   logically   collocated   sentences) providing      communication         and   mutual     understanding       is understood      by   connected speech     (M.M.      Alekseeva,      A.M. Borodich,      V.I.Yashina), a detailed    statement     of certain content which is carried logically, successively and precisely, grammatically correctly and (A.F. Sokhin). In methodology the tern “connected speech” is used in three   aspects.

Firstly connected   speech   has   a procedural   character   and   is   a   speaker activity.

Secondly it acts as a product, a result of this activity, in the form of a text or an    utterance.  

 Thirdly     it is correlated    with    a name     of   work    section    on   speech development in preschool pedagogy. According to A.A. Leontiev, an utterance is a communicative unit (from a separate sentence to a whole text) complete in content and intonation, characterized by a certain composition and grammatical structure [9].

According to T.A. Ladyzhinskaya, M.R.  Lvov an   utterance    is a   certain   speech production more than a sentence [7].

The researches of A.M. Leushina, L.S. Rubenstein showed   that   connected speech of the preschool age children may be situational (connected with a concrete, visual situation and does not reflect a thought content in speech forms) and context (the   content   is   clear   from   the   context,   building   of   an   utterance   is   required   without taking     into   consideration      the concrete     situation    with   the   help   of   only   language means).   Mainly   situational   speech   has   a   character of   a   conversation   and   context speech - a character of a monologue [10].

Connectedness (L.S.Rubenstein),   succession (E.P. Erastov, T.A. Ladyzhinskaya), integrity (A.A. Leontiev) and utterance logico-semantic organization (T.M. Dridze, N.I.  Zhinkin, I.A. Zimnyaya and   others)    are   basic characteristics of connected speech.

L.S. Rubinstein defined connectedness as speech framing   adequacy of a speaker’s or writer’s thought from the point of view of its clearness for a listener [12].

 In addition to these characteristics of connected speech A.A. Leontievnames integrity. He says that integrity is a feature of a text on the whole as a semantic unit, integral structure and is defined in the whole text unlike connectedness which is realized in its separated segments. Integrity is not correlated with linguistic categories and units; it has psychological nature [8].

E.P.Erastov,   T.A.   Ladyzhinskaya   note   that   a   widespread   type   of   statement succession is a succession of complex subdominant relations:    temporal,     spatial, causative,   qualitative.   Statement   succession   disorder   has   always   negative   reflection on text connectedness [5].

According to   N.P.    Erastov,     connected      speech     has    four   basic    groups     of connections.       Logical     connections      (speech     referring   to the   objective world and thought) belongs to the first group.

Functional-stylistic connections (speech referring to communication partners) belongs to the second group. Psychological connections (speech referring to communication spheres) are   in   the   third   group.   Grammatical connections   (speech referring   to the language   structure)   belong   to   the   fourth group [5].

Connected speech is in a form of a dialogue and a monologue, in a written or oral    form.    These    forms    of   connected      speech    are   contrasted     with   each    other   in scientific-methodological   literature   according   to   their   correlation   (A.A.   Leontiev), communicative orientation, motives and target audience. A structure, language means character,   a   control   degree   and   utterance   planning   (G.O.   Vinokur,   I.A.   Zimnyaya, A.A. Leontiev, A.R. Luria, T. Slama-Kazaku, V.P. Yakubinskiy and others).

In a broad sense a monologue is an utterance by a single person which is not interrupted by any cues for a long time usually requiring preliminary preparation and is   for   a   certain   audience [11]. From   the   psycholinguistic   point   of   view   connected monologue speech is speech of a single person communicative purpose of which is informing       about    some     phenomena,       facts   of   objective    reality (A.G.  Zikev, I.A. Zimnyaya).

A main difference of a monologue from a dialogue is in the following:

  1. Infants’ and early age children's monologue with the respect to a dialogue is secondary (T. Slama-Kazaku). Skills for a   monologue are formed   much later (A.A. Leontiev).   This   is   connected   with   late   naturity   of   a   planning   and   regulating   speech function with the respect to a communicative one (A.R. Luria).
  2. A monologic utterance is longer and is for purposeful information transfer, it

has    a  one-sided      and   continuous      character     of  an   utterance    (G.O.     Vinokur,  L.P. Yakubinskiy).

  1. When   making   a dialogue, its   content and   language   means   are chosenby a speaker, limited usage of non-verbal means of information transfer is noted here (I.A. Zimnyaya, A.A. Leontiev).
  2. A   single   person’s   thought   which   is   unknown   to   listeners   is   expressed   in   a monologue;   an   utterance   is   more   detailed   and   has   more   complete   formulation   of information (A.A. Leontiev).
  3. A monologue has a single topical development, while a dialogue is usually polytopical (O.I. Moskalskaya).
  4. A monologic cue unlike a dialogue one is addressed first of all to oneself and

does not presuppose a word reaction of interlocutors, making a dialogue takes much time for preparation and longer preliminary deliberation.

  1. Connectedness in a monologueis supplied     by   a single speaker    and    is supported by inner motives (A.A. Leontiev).
  2. Connected   detailed   utterance   realization   supposes   keeping   in   mind

a   made program   for   a   whole   period   of   a   speech   report,   usage   of   all   kinds   of   control   over speech activity process (current, subsequent and preemptive control) with the help of auditory and visual perception (A.A. Leontiev).

There   are   some   kinds   of   functional-semantic   types   of   a   monologue   speech: description,      narration,    creative    narration,    retelling   (V.P.    Glukhov,     L.A.    Dolgova, O.A.   Nechaeva and others).   According   to   a   purpose   an   utterance   id   divided   into informative       (serves    for knowledge       transfer),   persuading      (is referred    to audience emotions), stimulating (is directed to impel the audience to different kinds of activity) (A.G. Arushanova).

The researchers note that monologue utterances elements appear in speech of normally developing children at the age of 2-3 (T.A. Ladyzhenskaya, F.A. Sokhin,

O.S. Ushakova, L.P. Fedorenko and others). Preconditions for further development of monologue speech of preschool children is turning of external speech into inner are the    age   of 4-5   (A.A. Lublinskaya,   A.R.  Luria),    end   of the   phonetic-phonemics speech development process  and active  acquiring   a   morphological.  grammatical   and syntactical      structure    of  a  native    language   (A. N.   Gvozdev, O.S. Ushakovaand others). By the age of 4 the children are capable of acquiring such kinds of monologue speech      as descriptionand  narrationand   by   school    education     - reasoning       (A.G. Arushanova,   O.S.   Ushakova,   T.   B.   Filicheva)   and   by   the   age   of   6 - the   skill   of planning monologue utterances (L. R. Golubeva, N.A. Orlanova).

The problem of studying connected speech in deaf-and-dumb pedagogy is in a number of works (R.M. Boskis, L.M. Bykova, E.E. Vishnevskaya, A.G. Zikeev, A.S. Zykov,  

K.V.   Komarov,   K.G.   Korovin,   E.P.   Kuzmicheva,   Zh.I.   Shif   and others). However   owing   to   the   speech   development   specificity   of   the   deaf   and   the   hearing- impaired      most    researches   touched   dialogue   speech   forms. In  the  works     of   R.M. Boskis, S.A. Zykov, Zh.I. Shif peculiarities of written monologue utterances of deaf schoolchildren are shown due to a specificity of their speech development [3, 6, 14]. These peculiarities are in the following:

  1. Not    keeps succession, narration logic breach, placing     some     primary information       together     with    secondary      are typical    for   connected      speech     of deaf schoolchildren (S. A. Zykov).
  2. Deaf   children   when   building   a   connected   utterance   make   many   mistakes   in grammar   which   show   in   an   erroneous   combination   of   suffixes   and   inflexions,   in difficulties     of  correct    usage    of  language   categories       (number,     gender,    declension, case),   in   hampered   mastering   of   grammatical   connections   of   government  (Zh.I. Shif).
  3. Mistakes of deaf children indicate the fact that inflexions changes are not a way of thought     expression.     There    are   usually    sentence     fragments     in monologue utterances      where   there   is   lack   of   these   or   those   parts.   Sometimes   typical      words transpositions and an insufficient skill of choosing dependent parts of a sentence of original chains of sentences which substitute dependent clauses occur (R.M. Boskis).
  4.  Dropping     of   one   or   other   parts   of   a   sentence is   typical   for   independent utterances   of   a   deaf   child.   This   can   be   regarded   as   a   result   of limited   vocabulary. Usually      missing     words    in   a sentence     are unknown to a   child.   Repeated     word transpositions     are very typical for deaf children’s connected speech. Nouns playing role of object in a sentence are placed by them very often before a verb (predicate). (R.M. Boskis).
  5.  Abstract   parts   of   speech   appear   in   deaf   children’s   sentences   after   concrete ones. For example, a numeral is often after counted objects. Interrogative words and the particle expressing negation are also often placed before a verb (R.M. Boskis).

Up to early 70-s of the 20th   century connected speech teaching was built on the basis of colloquial speech: children were asked questions, they replied [4]. As a rule, these   utterances   were   unaddressed   and         were   not   stimulated   by   personal motives. Deaf children could make whole texts, narrations, descriptions from sentences built this way, direction to solving communicative tasks being absent [6].

Accordingly,         monologue       speech     is   one    of   connected      speech     types,    has preconditions for further development and certain characteristics which differ it from dialogue form of speech. The problem of connected speech study is in few researches in   the   field   of   deaf-and-dumb   pedagogy. However basically these researches are devoted to study of school age children’s with a hearing disorder written connected utterance. In this   connection     study of structure, content,   used   language      means character,   oral   monologue   utterance   control   and   planning   degree   of   preschool   age children     with    a hearing    disorder     in  comparison      with    hearing    peers    seems    very important to us.


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 [2].Akhmanova   O.S.   Glossary of linguistic terms.  4-th  Ed.,   stereotype. M.: KomKniga, 2007, 576 p.

 [3].Boskis R.M. Deaf and hard of hearing children.  M.: Sovetskiy sport, 2004, 304 p.

 [4].Bykova L.M.,VishnevskayaE.E.    The methodology of speech development in the younger grades.   L.: 1979, 100 p.

 [5].Erastova L.P. Culture of coherent speech. Yaroslavl, 1982.

 [6].Zykova   S.AMethods of teaching for deaf children. M.: Education, 1977, 200 p.

 [7].LadyzhenskayaT.A. System development related speech of learners. M.: Education, 1975,  256 p.

[8].Leontiev A.A.  The statement as the subject of linguistics, psycholinguistics and communication theory // Syntax text.  M.:1979, P. 12.

[9].LeontievA.A.   The foundations of the theory of speech activity.M.:Nauka, 1974, 234 p.

[10].Leushina A.M. The development of coherent speech at schoolboys. Vol. XXXV, 1941, p. 57.

[11].Teaching Encyclopedic Dictionary/ Gl. red. B.M. Bim-Bad. M.: 2002. – 528 p.

[12].Rubinstein S.L. The basics of general psychology. SPb: Piter, 2004, P.468

[13].TekuchevA.VThe methodology of the Russian language in high school.   M.: Education, 1980, 414 p.

[14].ShifZh.I. The acquisition of language and thought development.M.: Education, 1968, 318 p.


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